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: Betsy Devine: This is April 28th, 1989, and Im going to be using this tape to interview Professor S. S. Chern who is visiting the Institute [for Advanced Study]. Im going to be interviewing him in Marquand House. This is Betsy Devine speaking.
Well, I did make up, of course, a list of questions to ask you.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, go ahead.
Betsy Devine: Andr Weil in his introduction to your selected papers talks about how hard it was for you to get from China to the Institute the first time that you came. And I wanted to hear more about that from your side of the story, how it was arranged, your first visit.
Shiing-Shen Chern: That was 1943. Yes, I was in correspondence with [Oswald] Veblen. He used to transmit some of my papers and some papers of my students to American journals for publication. I got the invitation from the Institute to come as a Member in 1943. I think the letter of invitation must have come in 42. I was in the interior of China, in Southwest China. That was the time of the war [World War II]. During the war, China was completely isolated. The Japanese were everywhere on the rims of China, so I had to go by India, say over the hump to India, to Africa. All the way, Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi, and then say Khartoum, south of Egypt, and over Africa because the plane had to avoid the German army and General Romel. Romel was still very active in North Africa.
So the plane had to go south. I was in Accra, which is now in Ghana, West Africa. And then the plane made a stop in the Ascension Islands in the Mid-South Atlantic Ocean [and then on] to Brazil, to Recife, and then north to Miami. So it took altogether about a week. It was an American air transport because the United States was already sending arms to China, and the planes usually came back almost empty. It was completely empty. I didnt have to pay, but I needed some arrangement by the government to get a priority. A priority to be on the plane, and these are transports no seats something which you pull down to sit, fold-up seats you can pull down. Actually, on the first lap, from Calcutta to Karachi [there were] just two of us, a friend of mine who is a physicist and myself. Then we made all these stops. At each stop, we were put up at an air base, and we had to look we had a list of the people who could go on the next part [of the journey]. So, thats how I got here.
Betsy Devine: Sounds very grueling.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, it was a little tiresome, but I was young, so it was no problem.
Betsy Devine: Was it Veblen that arranged for all of this?
Shiing-Shen Chern: It was Veblen. My correspondence was with Veblen. I dont know whether you saw a short article of mine published in this publication of the American Mathematical Society, A Century of Mathematics in America. Last year was the centennial of the American Mathematical Society. Are you a mathematician?
Betsy Devine: No, Im not. My background is engineering.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. And now you are interested in history?
Betsy Devine: Yes.
Shiing-Shen Chern: The American Mathematical Society decided to have a publication on history. There are two volumes. I wrote an article in the first volume, [a] short article, only a couple pages about American differential geometry and my relation with some of the American mathematicians, particularly with Veblen.
Betsy Devine: Wonderful, I will go and look it up.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Its easy to find. My first contact with Veblen was when I was in Paris. He wrote to HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89lie_Cartan" \o "lie Cartan" lie Cartan with whom I was working as a post doc. I got my degree in Germany, Hamburg, Germany.
Betsy Devine: Yes, with Blaschke.
Shiing-Shen Chern: With Blaschke, and I spent the post doc year, one year, in Paris. Veblen was asking some mathematical questions.
Betsy Devine: Now about what year would that have been?
Shiing-Shen Chern: That was 36, 37.
Betsy Devine: So you met Veblen in Paris in the summer of
Shiing-Shen Chern: No, I didnt. Only by correspondence. His correspondent was HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89lie_Cartan" \o "lie Cartan" lie Cartan, not even with me. So he asked HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89lie_Cartan" \o "lie Cartan" lie Cartan some questions, some mathematical questions. Cartan showed his letter to me, and I was able to do something on this question. This result of mine was transmitted to Veblen, which he recommended [to the journal] Annals in Mathematics and it was later published there. So that was my first contact with Veblen. Then later on, I went back to China. China was already at war with Japan, so there were a lot of difficulties things at that time. But we kept up our correspondence. Then in 42, he invited me to come to Princeton.
Betsy Devine: Did you work with him at all when you were here?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Not mathematically. He was a very nice man.
Betsy Devine: Did you cut wood with him? Did you go to the forest with him and cut down trees?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, yes. He said, Show me your hands. He decided I was not really a worker. At that time, cutting wood was one of the activities at the Institute because of Veblen, and those who took part more regularly were Siegel, Carl Siegel and Wolfgang Pauli. I joined them from time-to-time, but I didnt do too much work I was not a good cutter. But Id say just for fun. The Institute was very small, very few people, so we all knew each other very well. The institute was very quiet at that time.
Betsy Devine: Did Veblen spend a lot of time at
Shiing-Shen Chern: At Aberdeen.
Betsy Devine: Yes.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. He was in charge of that activity. He had nice office [at the Institute], as you know, and he allowed me to use his office. At that time, this building did not exist yet. There was only the main Fuld Hall. I had an office on the third floor [of Fuld Hall], and Veblen had his office on the first floor, next to Einsteins. I think I used to take a nap in his office [when] it was not used. He allowed me to use this he had a library which I could make use of, and I saw him when he came back. From time-to-time he came back to Princeton and did some work; then I saw him.
Betsy Devine: One thing that Im curious about that you might be able to tell me the answer to, I know that Veblen was very involved in organizing mathematics, that is in getting money for it, getting national research fellowships.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes.
Betsy Devine: And I know that Hermann Weyl was active at the Institute in a different way. That is to say he organized seminars and a journal club and worked with the younger mathematicians.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, yes.
Betsy Devine: Was Veblen involved in that kind of organizing? Was Veblen involved in the mathematical activity of the Institute?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes. I think so. Not, of course, [when] I was here from 43 to the end of 45, he was mostly away; he was involved in war work. Then the second time I came from China was 49. I spent half a year here, the spring semester, and I gave lectures in his seminar. He had a seminar and I gave most of the lectures. Yes. So he always came. But he was probably, mathematically, not so active. But he followed [developments in the field].
Betsy Devine: Where did you live when you were at the Institute in 43, 45? Where was there for people to live?
Shiing-Shen Chern: I had a room on Wiggins Street. Do you know Wiggins Street?
Betsy Devine: Its way on the other side of Nassau Street. Is that right?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Thats right. Wiggins Street is parallel to Nassau Street. Yes. And, I think Jefferson, I had a room at the intersection of these two streets. Just a room.
Betsy Devine: So you walked to the Institute?
Shiing-Shen Chern: I walked to the Institute. I usually passed the Einstein House, which you are going to ask about. Occasionally, I also took the bus because there was a bus. I think that still exists now. I dont know. The bus between Fuld Hall and Fine Hall.
Betsy Devine: Yes.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Sometimes I took the bus, but sometimes, I walked.
Betsy Devine: Id just like to find out more about the Institute during those years of the war. Did you ever work with James Alexander? I know he was interested in topology.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, Alexander I knew quite well, yes. I talked with him. That was the time he wrote his paper on gratings. He always tried to get a simple definition of what is called homology. I dont know where the now you probably now you get accustomed to these names. He tried to develop a simple homology theory for variant spaces. And that he called gradings. Later on it was developed it was called the Alexander Cochain, Alexander Cohomology. I knew him quite well.
Betsy Devine: Did you go mountain climbing with him?
Shiing-Shen Chern: No, not mountain climbing. I went to his house for several parties. They used to give parties. The ones we partied [with] were Alexander, [John] von Neumann. Yes, I went many times to their houses.
Betsy Devine: Gaby Borel told me that at Alexanders house, they once had a beach party where they brought in sand, and they put a truckload of sand in their living room.
Shiing-Shen Chern: The parties I went to were not as wild.
Betsy Devine: I see. I think those must have been days of better parties than they have right now. What was your impression of von Neumann? I guess he wasnt exactly in the same kind of [area] as you were.
Shiing-Shen Chern: I knew him very well. He was very nice to me. Usually, I saw him at parties at Bargmanns apartment.
Betsy Devine: At Valentine Bargmann?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. Bargmanns Mrs. Bargmann.
Betsy Devine: Yes, Sonja Bargmann.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Sonja Bargmann gave a lot of parties, [to] which I usually went, and I saw von Neumann a number of times there. I was also invited for von Neumanns house. He was very kind to me. At that time, he spent more time in Princeton than Veblen. So I saw him more frequently.
Betsy Devine: Did you ever talk about mathematics with von Neumann, or was it just it sounds as though it was purely social.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Only in general ways. Always in general ways. The only thing [was that] later on after I went back to China, there was some Chinese mathematicians writing a paper more in his area, and I sent it to von Neumann, and the paper was published in The Annals [of Mathematics]. He recommended it to The Annals.
Betsy Devine: It must be difficult if youre living in China and the main publications are not; if you want to publish something in The Annals, and you have to it would be much easier if you could just send it to The Annals yourself.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, The Annals always has a very high standard, and there are very few people who write papers who are accepted by The Annals. But its appreciated. So some papers [that] are published in The Annals, [are] usually valued much higher than other papers, which is natural.
Betsy Devine: Yes. Was there anyone you collaborated with at the institute in 43 to 44 that you worked with mathematically?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Actually, my closest mathematical contact was with Chevallay at Fine Hall. He was writing his book on Lie groups at that time, and he had a group of people, including Warren Ambrose, who was a lecturer at Fine Hall at the University. And we were usually together. Now I did have some mathematical contact with Siegel. We talked, but not exactly a kind of collaboration. I talked to Hermann Weyl a lot, and my first paper on the Gauss-Bonnet formula, which is one of probably my best works, Hermann Weyl was among the first who read the paper. I wrote up the manuscript, and he was the first person to read [it]. One day, he suddenly told me I had another paper which was already published in The Annals he said, Do you know who was the referee of your paper?
Of course, I didnt know. And he said it was he. He read my paper. He wrote a nice report on the paper, and he had some suggestions for improvement, his way of looking at the problem, which I later incorporated in the paper, and I revised the paper. So afterwards, it was published. And Hermann Weyl himself told me that he was the referee. So, in that sense, he knew my name before I came here. He read my paper.
Betsy Devine: Thats a wonderful feeling when youre a young person to have some like that who has heard of you.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes. Yes. I used to visit Zurich because Heinz Hopf was there, who was very close to my mathematical interests. Mrs. Weyl lives in Zurich. That was the second Mrs. Weyl. I think she still lives there. When I went to Zurich in the past years, occasionally, I saw her. I had corresponded with her, and when I gave a seminar in Zurich, Hermann Weyl always attended.
Betsy Devine: One of the things that you were working on that time was sphere bundles, and I was wondering how youd say your work relates to say the work on bundles by Hassler Whitney.
Shiing-Shen Chern: I think he did it from the topological aspect, and I did it from the geometrical aspect. So they complement very well. I had a very close relationship with Hassler as a result of this. I come from geometry. I have my training in geometry, and the main issue which led me to bundles is what I just mentioned about the Gauss-Bonnet formula. I thought about the Gauss-Bonnet formula already when I was in China. Then, when I came here in 1943, I saw Andr Weil.
Andr Weil, at that time, taught at Lehigh University, and he came to Princeton frequently. He just published his paper with [Carl B.] Allendoerferon the Gauss-Bonnet formula. We took walks. So we took walks and we discuss about this formula, but I had some ideas. I had some ideas and I was able to do something which turned out to be significant. And from the Gauss-Bonnet formula, when you try to extend it to more general situations, you came naturally to the work of Hassler Whitney on sphere bundles. So, I got into sphere bundles, and I was friendly with Hassler. I visited him at Harvard many times. We came from different angles to the same subject.
Now say this is now important in physics, for instance. The notion of gauge field theory. Gauge field has as a mathematical basis these bundles. And the mathematicians, Hassler, came to this from topology, and I came from geometry. Now the geometry has the consequence that you can look at the look of the local geometry [whereas] topology is global. So, geometry is more adapted to applications. In applications in physics, you like to look at the local situation. You need numbers. You look at certain quantities. And the geometry leads more naturally to applications.
Betsy Devine: I dont necessarily understand everything youre saying, but well put it in the transcript, and someone who can understand
Shiing-Shen Chern: What kind of physics does your husband do?
Betsy Devine: Well, one of the things hes interested in is gauge theory.
Shiing-Shen Chern: So where were you before you came to Princeton?
Betsy Devine: Well, many years ago we met when we were both graduate students here.
Shiing-Shen Chern: In Princeton?
Betsy Devine: Yes, thats right. But just before we were here, he was on sabbatical at Harvard, and before that, theres an Institute for Theoretical Physics that was put in Santa Barbara, California.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes.
Betsy Devine: So we were there for seven years, I think.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, at Santa Barbara.
Betsy Devine: Yes. Well one of the questions I have here is about Andr Weil. I was just wondering how you had gotten to be friends and worked together and things like that when he was at Lehigh and you were here.
Shiing-Shen Chern: You read his article.
Betsy Devine: Yes, I did. Well, now I know what he said, now Im asking you.
Shiing-Shen Chern: He knew my paper. He reviewed one of my papers before we ever met. Then after I came here, he was at Lehigh. Later, he was in Swarthmore. He taught at Swarthmore and so we saw each other very frequently. We discussed all kinds of questions. We became close friends.
Betsy Devine: I think hes wonderful. I was going to say that.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes.
Betsy Devine: Its almost his birthday. Did you know that?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, I know. Do you know the exact date?
Betsy Devine: Yes, its May 6th. Im interested to hear from you if you can express, you know, people have different mathematical personalities. For example, it was said of the contrast between von Neumann and Einstein someone once said was that Einstein was very, very slow and thorough but von Neumann, if you asked him a question, he could tell you in 15 seconds, but if he couldnt tell you in 15 seconds, he would never think about it again. He wasnt interested in the longer-term thing.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes.
Betsy Devine: I was just wondering if you might have anything to say about some of the mathematical personalities of some of the people that weve been talking about, like Hermann Weyl or Andr Weil or Claude Chevalley.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Claude Chevalley, his style may be closer to von Neumann. He has comments. He was very fast. He may not be always right. Hermann Weyl had broad views, and he looked at mathematics as a whole. When he saw a mathematical concept develop, he immediately had some idea of its position in the whole of mathematics, and usually, I think he was right. Andr Weil was also I think I got a lot of benefit in discussing with him all kinds of questions. He understood very quickly and was able to make comments. Theyre all very impressive people.
Betsy Devine: As I mentioned in my note to you, I read that little article that you wrote for [journal] The Mathematical Intelligencer. You were reviewing some letters that passed between Einstein and
Shiing-Shen Chern: And lie Cartan.
Betsy Devine: lie Cartan, thats right.
Shiing-Shen Chern: But now, I forget what I said.
Betsy Devine: Now you forget. Oh, you didnt say that much. You said that youd known both men, and that the Institute during the war was very quiet, and that Einstein was working on questions that were more closely related to math than to physics. I forget exactly what you said.
In the 1940s, did you feel that he was really hopeful of getting his unified field theory going, or did you feel he was still sort of just doing it without or is that a sensible question?
Shiing-Shen Chern: I think he had confidence. He tried all kinds of approaches, and he worked very hard, moving from one approach to another.
Betsy Devine: Yes.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, I was not able to work more deeply with him because I was more interested in other aspects, but Einstein had very high standards. He insists on the physical theory satisfying all these. For instance, I would think that a theory like gauge theory probably would take him long time to swallow. He did not like quantum theory, although he was one of the initiators. He thought it did not satisfy all his requirements for unity of beauty of the field. His work at that time was quite close to mine but we didnt talk and discuss his physics. Usually, we discussed in fact, when I visited his house, which I think you will be moving into, he had on his shelf books by Lao-tzu. Yes. So, he liked this kind of Chinese philosophy.
And we discussed Chinese philosophy, about China. Not much about science.
Betsy Devine: Were you interested in music also? I know he was interested in music.
Shiing-Shen Chern: No.
Betsy Devine: Well, I wanted to find out when you came back in 1949, I was curious, how had the Institute changed say between 45 and 49?
Shiing-Shen Chern: As I say, 45 was very quiet, although we had a seminar on differential geometry. But 49, it was in bloom. A lot of people not as many as there are now, but a lot of people and a lot of young people. So it had started recovering from the war.
Betsy Devine: Was your family with you I know from reading Andr Weils article that they came with you from China this time.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes.
Betsy Devine: And did they come to Princeton also?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes. We lived in the project, and the project at that time these houses were not built yet so they had some sort of temporary housing. As a matter of fact, it might be interesting, at that time, our neighbor was Jack Steinberger who received a Nobel Prize last year. He was our next-door neighbor. So that was I came here in February of 49. Then in the summer, I went to Chicago. I received this offer from Chicago.
Betsy Devine: And Andr Weil was already out there.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes.
Betsy Devine: Thats where my husband went as an undergraduate to Chicago. He loved Chicago.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes. What years was he there?
Betsy Devine: Let me think. Well, he was born in 1951, so it must have been pretty recent. I dont know.
Shiing-Shen Chern: He was a kid.
Betsy Devine: Yes, thats right. I dont remember.
Shiing-Shen Chern: During that period, all the physicists had to go to Chicago because of [Enrico] Fermi.
Betsy Devine: Yes, thats right.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Everybody spent some time in Chicago at that time.
Betsy Devine: Did you know Fermi out there?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh yes, yes. Occasionally, I sat and listened to one of his lectures.
Betsy Devine: You know, [Marvin] Goldberger who is the new director here was Fermis student.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Thats right. Yes. Also, my former student, Yang, C. N. Yang, he was very close to Fermi. Both Yang and Lee were in Chicago. All the young people.
Betsy Devine: You were just here for a semester in 1949, and it must have been very hectic having just left China and having your family here.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Actually, I gave a series of lectures. I mean there was a period, probably I gave lectures for about two months. I was the only speaker of that seminar. This was essentially Veblens seminar. Yes. And these were published as Institute Notes, topics in differential geometry. I gave these lectures in 49, and the notes appeared in 51. It took me some time to I went to Chicago, and I had to set it down. These notes were quite popular at that time, in 51. So all these concept which are now become commonplace in gauge field theory, and also in mathematics.
Betsy Devine: I notice that you wrote a couple of papers with Raoul Bott. Is that right?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, thats right. Yes.
Betsy Devine: Ive just noticed because hes been at the Institute quite a bit. I think hes coming later this week. Sorry, next week. Hes coming to Princeton.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, hes coming? Im going there. Im going to Boston tomorrow. Hes coming?
Betsy Devine: May 4th, hes giving a talk at Princeton.
Shiing-Shen Chern: May 4th, yes. I may still see him. Ill be staying at Harvard May 1st and second. I saw him when I came in 49. He was here.
Betsy Devine: He worked a lot with Marston Morse I know.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Thats right.
Betsy Devine: I didnt ask you anything about Marston Morse, but was what Morse and Bott were working on, topology in the large. Was that relevant to what you were interested in?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes. Very relevant. I knew Marston quite well. I usually talked to him. But my mathematical activity by nature is closer to Hassler Whitney than to Marston Morse. Although they are closely related.
Betsy Devine: When you first came here, Frank Aydelotte was Director of the Institute, and then in 49, and in 55, it was [J. Robert] Oppenheimer. Did you notice any particular difference between their did it make any difference to you as a visiting member?
Shiing-Shen Chern: No, not to me. No. Both were nice to me. I knew both of them, occasionally went to their office, have a chat with them. More with Oppenheimer because we were close in interest, and Oppenheimer used to ask me to give talks in his physics seminar. I gave talks in his physics seminar a couple times.
Betsy Devine: When you came back in 1954, youd been at Chicago by then for about four or five years.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, thats right. I came on my sabbatical from Chicago. I think that year, I had at Guggenheim [Fellowship], so I spent a year here. 54, 55. The first time I was here for two and a half years, and then a year, 54, 55. Then I spent another semester here, not counting occasional visits like this.
Betsy Devine: Well, I know you spent the semester in 49. Have you spent time here since 1980?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Since 1980, probably not. Mrs. Moriarty was telling me that I had been staying in this house in 81 and 83. Each time only for a few days.
Betsy Devine: Well, its a beautiful place, but it is kind of far from Berkeley.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. A beautiful place, and frankly, at my age, I prefer more to stay home. Its all very nice, very enjoyable, seeing old friends, but somehow, ones mobility is more restricted.
Betsy Devine: I guess you have to really think about it before you do things.
Shiing-Shen Chern: For one thing, its a burden for me to carry my bag, for instance. So I travel less at present. You dont understand this yet.
Betsy Devine: I hope I get to.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes.
Betsy Devine: I wanted to ask you, one of the questions Ive been asking other people how important would you say the institute has been to your work?
Shiing-Shen Chern: For me, its [been] just crucial because I wouldnt [have] been able to do some of my main contributions without coming here. I was in China, and, apparently in my situations, I was prepared in certain area of mathematics, and then I had to come here in order to be able to do this work. It was crucial for my career.
Betsy Devine: Because of what you learned here?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Because of what I learned here. Somehow, scientists have to come to a subject at the opportune time, and it was developed here to a certain stage, and I came in with a certain technique and certain training, which is new to subject. So this combination allowed me to do my work in this area. I came with an entirely different background, and it turned out that this combination was the right thing for the development of these concepts.
Betsy Devine: Not that Im going to understand you, but would you like to be more specific for someone who might read about this sometime? What exact kind of concepts and what exact kind of area are you talking about? Is it sphere bundles or manifolds?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. Essentially, the area could be described as the geometry of fiber bundles, which is the mathematical basis of the gauge field theory in physics. And that has a need for a combination of different disciplines, in particular, topology, which were developed in Princeton. But it also needs Local Theory, which was based on the work of lie Cartan, who was not so recognized at that time. But I came in with my understanding of Cartan, so they fit very well. That allowed a certain development.
And the Institute was the main thing which allowed me to do my work. Yes. That was a very unusual combination.
Betsy Devine: Well, Im glad that it was helpful. One other question I was hoping to ask you if we had a bit of time, I noticed that you know Wilhelm Blaschke, did you work with him when you were in Hamburg?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Well, yes. I got my degree with him.
Betsy Devine: You know, he has a bad reputation around here because of that funny thing he once wrote. Id just be interested to hear what you have to say.
Shiing-Shen Chern: He was very nice to me. It was unfortunate. He made this sarcastic comment. I think he probably tried to be funny, to be humorous, but it appeared in print, and people never forgave him. But he was a great geometer. At that time, the leading geometer in Germany, and he had a lot of ideas. I think I was very much influenced. . . not very directly because at that time, he already traveled a lot. You know, with the European system, you dont get that much direction from your professor. The students just went their own way.
[40:15]
Betsy Devine: Could you tell me a little more about how that works? You arrive from China in Hamburg. Is that right?
Shiing-Shen Chern: I arrive in Hamburg in 1934, in September 1934. At that time, most people went on vacation. So, the people I was recommended to, were not there. And I hardly spoke any German. I had two years of German in school, in college, which was quite inadequate.
But I got around. I was a young man, first time out of China. So things were very exciting. And you know, one can get around in a place even without speaking the language, you can always make yourself understood. And in September, I went to one of these classes for foreigners, Deutsch fr Auslnder, German for foreigners. I went to that class every day, it was a lot of work, but its not hard to get used to this. Once the semester started, I was able to follow the lectures although they were all in German. But in mathematical lectures the language is relatively simple. A year later, or even before that, I was able to give similar reports myself.
Betsy Devine: By that time, of course, Hitler had come to power, and, for example, the Jews had been denied their professorships, and many people had left. Was that did you well, of course, if you werent there before 1933, it wouldnt you wouldnt have noticed the change particularly.
Shiing-Shen Chern: I didnt notice the change. I was a country boy from China. I didnt know much about Western politics. I knew Hitler was there. I did not have a good understanding of his relation with Jews, and of what he did. Only later I began to gradually understand some of the awful things he did. So I just went there, and as a student, actually, the Nazi government was friendly to I dont know, its a funny thing to say to students from other foreign countries. They liked to have the foreign students.
Betsy Devine: So they didnt harass you for not being German.
Shiing-Shen Chern: No, they didnt. They were quite nice. And it was the first time I was exposed to a Western country. So, I had no comparison. I was accommodated, I had a room. Later on, I moved to a dormitory. They did have this racial attitude, which, somehow, they didnt apply to other races, not that much. And my German was inadequate, so I didnt follow, until later, I began to realize what their philosophy was.
Betsy Devine: When would you say that would have happened? When did you sort of begin to notice?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Only after I left Germany.
Betsy Devine: I see.
Shiing-Shen Chern: For instance, I knew the word Nazi much later. You dont see this word, in Germany, in the German papers or German peer articles. So only later when one of my friends came to visit me from London, and then I began to realize some of the reactions from other countries.
Betsy Devine: When you went to Paris to work with lie Cartan in 36, 37, how was that in contrast to Hamburg?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Actually, only superficial differences, to me. Of course, my main purpose was to do with mathematics, so I worked very hard. lie Cartan was nice to me. I saw him frequently. I usually went to see once him every two weeks, and I gave him a report of the work I did. I think I was there for about ten months, and I wrote three papers. I worked very hard.
Betsy Devine: Yes, thats a lot of papers.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Three papers on different topics. Otherwise, the main difference is the life in a bigger city like Paris. Hamburg was already a big city, but naturally, Id certainly say Hamburg and Paris are quite different. Life was different. In Hamburg, there were some Chinese students, it was closely knit, a very small group. And Paris is much more
Betsy Devine: Cosmopolitan.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes, cosmopolitan. More people, all kinds of activity.
[Edit in Audio]
Interest in mathematics. So basically, its not too much difference.
Betsy Devine: And then did you get married after you went back to China?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. I went back to 37 when war broke out between
[Edit in Audio]
I was supposed to become a professor in Beijing at that time and I never got there because when I went back to China through the United States, actually, war broke out, and Beijing was occupied. Then we moved around and finally settle down in Kunming in Southwest China.
Shiing-Shen Chern: And there, I had C. N. Yang, for instance, as a student in my class. He attended several of my courses.
Betsy Devine: He and T. D. Lee have both been very active in promoting science in China.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Yes. Yes, a lot of Chinese scientists in this country try to do something to help the development in China.
Betsy Devine: I think its a fine idea. My husband has a graduate student from China.
Shiing-Shen Chern: In Santa Barbara?
Betsy Devine: Here. She was at Harvard when we were on sabbatical there, and now shes come down here to work once more.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Was she going to get a degree from Harvard?
Betsy Devine: Yes, thats right. But she told me that her father was a professor, and during the Cultural Revolution, I guess, they all had to go and live on a farm.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Oh, yes, it was a terrible thing.
Betsy Devine: Im glad thats over. One thing Id like to ask you if you have the time because this is something Ive been asking people, Im very interested in hearing how people when theyre children or teenagers first become interested in mathematics. If youd be willing to tell me a little bit about you were born in China. Was it a small town, a big town, countryside?
Shiing-Shen Chern: It was a small town. In my case, my case, I had good training in high school. I had some very good math teachers. For instance, in my sophomore year in high school, that was when I was maybe 12 or 13 years old. We used a book by Hall and Knight [Elementary Algebra by Henry Sinclair Hall and Samuel Ratcliffe Knight]. It was a very popular textbook in England, on algebra, and then also, they had a book on what is called higher algebra.
Betsy Devine: So you were studying in English.
Shiing-Shen Chern: I was studying in English, and also, the standard American text at that time was Wentworth and Smith [Plane and Solid Geometry by George Wentworth and David Eugene Smith]. Yes, Wentworth and Smith on geometry, and also trigonometry. And so we did almost all the exercises. It was a solid background. I think nowadays, schools emphasize the concept. This is more say a drill, but this kind of drill is very useful. Its a training.
Betsy Devine: Was there ever some special kind of problem or thing that you worked out in those days when you were say 12, 13, 14 that made you feel very excited about mathematics, or some day that you said to yourself, Id really like to be a mathematician.
Shiing-Shen Chern: I dont know. I think that I have no idea at that time to wish to be a mathematician. I have no idea what a mathematician does. So just in school, I did work with mathematics classes, and I didnt do well with experiments. So that makes my choice more and more limited. When I graduated from college, I didnt know what the life of a mathematician could be. So it could end up just as a high school teacher, which I didnt think about that. I never had the idea that life of mathematician could be this good.
Betsy Devine: So when you finished college, you were going to go to graduate school to Hamburg, but not because you were going to be a mathematician. It was because?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Gradually, of course. After I graduated from college, I began to realize that theres something thats doing mathematical research, that tried to develop something new in mathematics, and you can have papers published. So its all very gradual.
Betsy Devine: Did you go to Hamburg that very same year you graduated from college, or did you work for a while?
Shiing-Shen Chern: No. It was very difficult to come out to study in the West country because its very expensive, and my family couldnt afford to support me to study in the West. I had to get a fellowship. And so I went to Tsinghua University as a graduate student with the possibility that I could get a fellowship after I finished graduate school, and I did. So I spent four years, first year as an assistant of the department, and the next three years as a post graduate student, and then Ive got the fellowship. In fact, my fellowship was a fellowship for the United States. Normally, the people came to the United States, so I requested to be allowed to go to Germany, and this was approved.
Betsy Devine: What was the name of the fellowship?
Shiing-Shen Chern: Boxer. You see Boxer Indemnity. China lost the war in 1901 at the Boxer Rebellion.
Betsy Devine: Boxer Rebellion.
Shiing-Shen Chern: The Boxer Rebellion, and China had to pay all the indemnities to the Western powers, and the United States was the first one under Teddy Roosevelt to decide to use the money to send Chinese student to study in the United States. That was the basis of the Tsinghua University, which is now in Beijing. So many Chinese students came out of that kind of fellowship. Boxer Indemnity Fund returned by the United States to China.
Betsy Devine: Thats just fascinating. Thank you so much for talking with me.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Now I wonder whether you can give me favor. Are you going back to Institute?
Betsy Devine: Would you like a ride?
Shiing-Shen Chern: I would like a ride, yes.
Betsy Devine: Absolutely.
Shiing-Shen Chern: Im going there. Im going to have lunch with Andr Weil. So I have some stuff. Ill be down in a minute.
Betsy Devine: Great, I have to pack this up anyway.
[End of Audio]
Mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern (19112004) is internationally recognized as the foremost differential geometer of his time. A Member in the School of Mathematics on numerousoccasions, beginning in 1943 through1964, he maintained close ties with the Institute over the years, in particular with former Director (19912003) Phillip Griffiths, on whose work he was a major influence. In 2007, Griffiths editedInspired by S. S. Chern: A Memorial Volume in Honor of a Great Mathematician(World Scientific Press). While an IAS Member from August 1943 to December 1945, Chern developed work which would have a major impact on the field of mathematics, changing the course of differential geometry and transcendental algebraic geometry. During his time he discovered an intrinsic proof of the n-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet formula, the forerunner of other invariants that bear his name: Chern classes, Chern-Weil homomorphism, and Chern-Simons invariants. In 1982, he worked with Calvin Moore (IAS Member, 1964-65) and I.M. Singer (IAS Member, 1955-56, 1975-76) to establish the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) in Berkeley. In addition to serving as MSRIs first director, Chern founded mathematics institutes at the Academia Sinica in Nanking and at his alma mater, Nankai University in Tianjin. In memory of Chern, the International Mathematical Union established the Chern Medal in 2010 for an individual whose accomplishments warrant the highest level of recognition for outstanding achievements in the field of mathematics.
French-born mathematician Andr Weil (1906-1998), brother of the philosopher Simone Weil, is remembered for his work in algebraic geometry and number theory. He was an Institute Member in the spring of 1937 and, in 1958, was appointed to the faculty of the Institutes School of Mathematics by (then) Director J. Robert Oppenheimer; he and served until his retirement in 1976, when he became Emeritus. In 1994, received the Kyoto Prize from the Inamori Foundation of Kyoto, ofen called Japans Nobel Prize, in honor of work known as the Weil Conjectures.
Born in Iowa, Oswald Veblen (1880-1960) is regarded as a pioneer in the mathematical field of topology. He joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1905 and during his 27 years there built the mathematics department there into one of eminence. He served as one of the Institutes first faculty in the School of Mathematics from Sept. 1932 to June 1950, when he became Emeritus. He was committed to improving research conditions in mathematics in the United States and had enormous influence on the development of the Institutes first school.
Known as der Wstenfuchs, the Desert Fox, the German general and military theorist Erwin Rommel was a highly decorated officer in World War I and served as field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II, notably as the commander of the 7th Panzer Division during the 1940 invasion of France.
See American Differential GeometrySome Personal Notes by Shiing-Shen Chern in AMS History of Mathematics, Volume 1: A Century of Mathematics in America, Part I, 1988 [ISBN 0-8218-0124-4].
French mathematician lie Joseph Cartan (1869-1951) is known for his fundamental work in the theory of Lie Groups, differential systems (coordinate-free geometric formulation of PDEs), and differential geometry. He also made significant contributions to general relativity and indirectly to quantum mechanics. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century.
Chern earned a D.Sc. from the University of Hamburg in 1936. In 1949, he joined the faculty of the University of Chicago and in 1960 was appointed to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley.
The Austrian differential and integral geometer Wilhelm Johann Eugen Blaschke(1885-1962)
published one of the first books devoted to convex sets Circle and Sphere(Kreis und Kugel) in 1916.
Number theorist Carl Ludwig Siegel (1896-1981) was a Member in the School of Mathematics in the spring of 1935 and from Sept. 1940 through June 1945. He subsequently served on the faculty (1945-1951) and was a Member again if the fall of 1960.
The Austrian physicist and 1945 Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958)was outstanding among the brilliant mid-twentieth century school of physicists. He helped lay the foundations of the quantum theory of fields and is known for his consolidation of field theory by giving proof of the relationship between spin and statistics of elementary particles. His exclusion principle, which is often quoted bearing his name, led to the recognition of the two-valued variable required to characterize the state of an electron. He was a Member in the School of Mathematics (prior to the founding of the School of Natural Sciences) on five occasions between 1935 and 1956.
The reference is to the Ballistic Research Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland.
Hermann Weyl (1885-1955) left his native Germany to join the Institute in 1933, three years after he had succeeded David Hilbert to the worlds most prestigious chair in mathematics at the University of Gttingen. He had a major impact on the progress of the entire field of mathematics and is work spanned many areas, including topology, differential geometry, Lie groups, representation theory, quantum mechanics, harmonic analysis, and analytic number theory. Among those mathematical topics named for him are Weyl algebra, the Weyl character formula, the Weyl tensor, and the Weyl group.
A pioneer in the field of algebraic topology James Waddell Alexander II (1888-1971) was one of the first faculty appointments at the Institute in 1933. He served on the faculty of the School of Mathematics until his retirement in 1947. His work set the foundations for Henry Poincars ideas on homology theory and furthering it by founding cohomology theory, which developed gradually in the decade after he gave a definition of cochain. A noted mountaineer, he was known to leave open the window of his office on the top of Fine Hall so that he could enter by climbing the building.
One of the Institutes first faculty appointments John von Neumann (1903-1957) served in the School of Mathematics from 1933 until his death in 1957. He was one of a group of Hungarian and Jewish intellectuals to escape to the United States from the turmoil of Europe and during World War II he worked on the Manhattan Project. He pioneered the field of high-speed computing initiated the Institutes Electronic Computer Project. At the Institute, he was known for his legendary cocktail parties.
Wife of IAS mathematician Armand Borel(1923-2003) an internationally recognized mathematician whose work was fundamental to the development and formation of modern mathematics. He worked in algebraic topology, Lie Group theory and was one of the creators of the contemporary theory of linear algebraic groups.He was a Member in the School of Mathematics (9/19527/1954) and was appointed to the permanent faculty in 1957. He became Professor Emeritus in 1993.
Theoretical physicist Valentine Bargmann was a Member in the School of Mathematics from 1937 to 1943 and from 1954 to 1955. His wife, Sonja Bargmann, worked briefly on the Institutes Electronic Computer Project during the fall of 1952.
French mathematician Claude Chevalley(1909-1984) made important contributions to number theory, algegraic geometry, class field theory, finite group theory and the theory of algebraic groups. He was a founding member of the Bourbaki group.
Warren Ambrose(1914-1995) was a frequent Member in the School of Mathematics from 1939 to 1959.
German mathematician Heinz Hopf(1894-1971) worked on the fields of topology and geometry.
Hassler Whitney(1907-1989) made important contributions in geometry, particularly in topology, including the study of multidimensional surfaces like spheres. He was one of the founders of singularity theory and did foundational work in manifolds, embeddings, immersions, characteristic classes and geometric integration theory. He joined the Institutes faculty in 1952 and was Professor Emeritus in the School of Mathematics from 1977 until his death in 1989.
For two years, Weil taught undergraduate mathematics at Lehigh University, which he did not enjoy because of the heavy teaching load. He left Lehigh and moved to Brazil to teach at the Universidade de Sao Paulo HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universidade_de_S%C3%A3o_Paulo" \o "Universidade de So Paulo" from 1945 to 1947. He then returned to the United States and taught at the University of Chicago from 1947 to 1958, before moving to theInstitute, where he spent the remainder of his career.
Jack Steinberger(born May 25, 1921) received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Leon M. Lederman and Melvin Schwartz for the discovery of the muon neutrino. He was an Institute Member on two occasions (9/19486/1949 and 9/19594/1960).
Physicists Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee received the 1957 Nobel Prize for their work on parity violation.Yang first came to the Institute as a Member in 1949 and became a professor in 1955, staying until 1966. Lee was on the faculty from 1960 until 1962.
Harold Calvin Marston Morse(1892-1977) isbest known for his work on the calculus of variations, where he introduced the technique of differential topology, known as Morse theory. He was one on the first faculty appointed to the Institutes School of Mathematics, serving from 1935 until 1962, when he became Professor Emeritus.
The Hungarian-American mathematician Raoul Bott (1923-2005) is known for numerous fundamental contributions, primarily the Bott periodicity theorem, the Morse-Bott functions and the Borel-Bott-Weil theorem. He participated in the IAS Electronic Computer Project from 1949 to 1951 and was a Member in the School of Mathematics on two occasions (9/19556/1957; 9/19714/1972).
TheBoxer Indemnity Scholarship Program brought Chinese students to the United States. In 1908, the U.S Congress passed a bill to return to China the excess of Boxer Indemnity, amounting to over 17 million dollars. Despite controversy, President Theodore Roosevelts administration decided to establish the Boxer Indemnity Scholarship Program to educate young Chinese and improve U.S- China relations.
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